Monday, February 4, 2013

TiPEL SIG Officer Nominations

The AACP Technology in Pharmacy Education and Learning (TiPEL) SIG is now accepting nominations for officers for  2013-2014.   The two offices are:

Chair–elect:  This is a three-year commitment in which the person serves as chair-elect, chair and then immediate past-chair.  The chair-elect is the chair of the programming committee and would coordinate the SIG programming for the 2014 Annual Meeting.   The chair-elect also serves on the nominating committee for officers to serve in the 2014-2015 year.

Secretary – This is a two-year term.  The Secretary shall record, keep and distribute minutes of SIG business meetings to all
officers.  The Secretary shall summarize the minutes of the annual SIG business meeting for publication in the Newsletter.  The Secretary shall serve as Chair of the Resolutions Committee and transmit to the AACP Board, House of Delegates or Bylaws and Policy Development Committee all policy and resolution issues approved by the SIG membership. 

To nominate someone (or yourself), please send name and contact information along with a biosketch (200-250 words) by 5:00 PM Eastern time February 28 to     The nominations committee will choose a short list of candidates from the nominations and submit them to AACP.  AACP will conduct the election online. 

If you have any questions, please contact me directly.  Thank you for your interest and participation in the SIG.

Associate Professor of Pharmacy Practice
University of Mississippi School of Pharmacy

Friday, August 24, 2012

Graduating with Technology

Not pharmacy-specific, but there is an infographic at LearnStuff that may provide some insights into the attitudes towards technology of students we encounter 4-5 years from now.   Good stuff.

Wednesday, June 27, 2012

TiPEL-SIG Program at the AACP 2012 Annual Meeting

Technology in Pharmacy Education & Learning SIG: Using an Electronic Health Record to Simulate Real-World Experiences in Therapeutics and Skills Laboratory Courses 
Tuesday, July 17
1:30 p.m.- 3:00 p.m.
Program Description:
We intend to facilitate the development of real-world practice experiences useful for all institutions in therapeutics and pharmacy practice skills laboratory courses.  We will demonstrate the use of a simulated electronic health record populated by real (de-identified) patient data for the purpose of developing practice skills in students throughout the curriculum.
Keith J. Christensen, Creighton University; Kimberley J. Begley, Creighton University;  Samuel C. Augustine, Creighton University;  Amy Pick, Creighton University
1. Describe the benefits of the use of an electronic health record (eHR) in achieving educational outcomes in students throughout the curriculum.
2. Demonstrate the application of the eHR for the delivery of information necessary to prepare a medication therapy management plan for a therapeutics case study in lieu of paper-based documents.
3. Describe the development and implementation of the Electronic Laboratory Manual approach to simulating pharmacy practice and skills development.
4. Describe the use of the laboratory sequence as a means of demonstrating student achievement of educational outcomes and applicability to curricular assessment.

Technology-related Poster Presentations at the AACP Annual Meeting

While not complete, here is a list of some of the technology-related posters that will be presented at the AACP Annual Meeting in July, 2012.

If you have a poster that is not listed here and would like it added to the blog, please send it to Gary Theilman.

Evaluating Student Preference for Learning Using a New Asynchronous Online Tool: VoiceThread®. Marcos Oliveira, University of the Incarnate Word, Jeffrey T. Copeland, University of the Incarnate Word, Jason Cota, University of the Incarnate WordObjectives: In the fall of 2008, 4.6 million students took at least one online higher education course (Allen E, Seaman, J: Online education in the United states, 2009: Sloan consortium; 2010). This proposal seeks to assess how the introduction of an asynchronous multimedia tool (VoiceThread®) changes students perceptions regarding their preferred learning strategies. Method: A multimedia discussion tool recording video using Camtasia was created and posted for discussion on VoiceThread®. Pre- and post-course surveys were used to assess students’ preconceived views regarding preferred learning strategies. Results: VoiceThread® was new to 75% of the students. Comparison of pre- and post-course surveys indicate the implementation for VoiceThread® changed the student ranking of reading, lecture, and simple video recordings. In pre-course surveys 76% ranked reading in the top two choices while in post-course surveys this number reduced to 59%. The only increase in preference was observed in VoiceThread® (26% to 35%). A notable finding in pre-course surveys was that 37% of students younger than 25yo preferred lecture while only 14% of students older than 25 had the same preference. Implications: Introduction of VoiceThread® in a class was well received by students. Further studies across different subjects and instructors in different years will be necessary to identify general patterns of student preference including strategies to use when  

A Quality Comparison Between Virtual Site Visits and On-site Visits of Required APPEs. Lisa M. Meny, Ferris State University, Cambria M. DeHoag, Ferris State University, Rosalie Baran, Ferris State University, Susan DeVuyst-Miller, Ferris State University, Jaqueline Morse, Ferris State UniversityObjectives: To compare the usefulness and preceptor satisfaction between a virtual site visit and a traditional in-person site visits. Method: The College of Pharmacy experiential team identified adjunct faculty practice sites which accept students on a regular basis for required APPEs. Sites where then randomized to undergo either a virtual site visit utilizing an online conferencing software or a traditional on-site visit. Both were conducted by experiential faculty members using a predefined visit template. Prior to the visit, sites were asked to complete a self-assessment checklist provided electronically. Following a completed site visit, preceptors were asked to complete and electronic post-visit survey to gauge satisfaction with the site visit process. Results: Thirty-three practice sites were identified as eligible for participation with thirty-one of these completing the intervention. Seventeen APPE sites received an on-site visit, and fourteen sites receiving a virtual site visit. Faculty conducting the visits were able to complete the visit assessment worksheet regardless of type of visits. Faculty spent, on average, more time with preceptors participating in an on-site visit (47 minutes) as compared with virtual site visits (36 minutes). Preceptor satisfaction was comparable between the two types of visits with preceptors feeling very positive overall about their site visit experience. Implications: Virtual site visits are an effective option for obtaining complete information on a quality assurance expectation checklist from adjunct faculty providing required APPEs.

Electronic Student Portfolios in the APPE Curriculum-Compliance Rates and Interventions to Improve. C. Lea Bonner, Mercer University, Annesha W. Lovett, Mercer University, Susan W. Miller, Mercer UniversityObjectives: The purpose of this study is to (1) document the compliance rates of students in meeting portfolio submission deadlines and to (2) identify the number and types of interventions required by the Office of Experiential Education (OEE) in order for students to complete their P4 student e-portfolio assignments. Method: Student portfolios were examined during Weeks 1, 3 and 5 of each APPE for completed assignments. Non-compliant students were notified by the OEE by email of deficiencies, advised of the consequences of non-compliance and allowed 48 hours to bring their portfolio into compliance without penalty. Results: The first 6 months of 2011-12 academic year yielded 686 APPEs and 4,607 portfolio assignments; 11.6% were not completed by the due date; 534 electronic interventions and 10 grade reductions. Average student compliance rates were highest among mid-point self-assessments (94.8%) and evidence of learning artifacts (95%). All other portfolio artifacts had an average compliance rate of 85.6%-88.7%. Ninety-three students (71%) required minimal intervention (0-5); 29 (22.1%) required moderate intervention (6-10); 9 (6.9%) required excessive interventions (≥11). Implications: Compliance rates varied among assignments with automated notifications and those without. Providing automated student reminders doesn't appear to be an important factor in compliance, rather the focus should be on promoting student awareness of portfolio requirements by the College and accrediting bodies. An increase in student buy-in should decrease the number of students requiring intervention by the OEE. Grades should also be linked to portfolios to decrease the number of students unwilling to comply.

Challenges and efficiencies of iPad 2© use to Optimize Ambulatory Care Pharmacy Faculty Practice. Jessica Dana, Belmont University, Kristina Wood, Belmont University, Elisa Greene, Belmont University, Rachel Franks, Belmont University, Traci Poole, Belmont University, Philip E. Johnston, Belmont University, Cathy H. Ficzere, Belmont UniversityObjectives: To identify efficiencies and challenges with iPad© use to optimize ambulatory care pharmacy faculty practice. Method: Ambulatory care pharmacy faculty received an iPad 2© for use at their respective practice sites to increase access to electronic resources required for completion of routine clinical activities. A multi-departmental faculty group was formed to identify the efficiencies and challenges associated with iPad 2© to use. The group included all iPad 2© ambulatory care pharmacy faculty end-users, the drug information faculty member, the pharmacy informatics faculty member, and an administrative faculty member. The group met weekly to share experiences and identify and trouble-shoot problems as they occurred. Results: The multi-departmental group of faculty members identified the following efficiencies associated with iPad 2© use: ability to document standard clinical pharmacy interventions, access practice site electronic health record (EHR) wirelessly, and improved access to drug information resources. The group identified the following challenges: unreliable site internet connectivity for iPad 2©, site specific policies restricting access/use of EHR on the iPad 2©, and compatibility/access issues with Microsoft© Office Products. Implications: New technology, such as the iPad 2©, offers multiple potential benefits to optimizing ambulatory care pharmacy practice by faculty; however, it is not free from challenges. As academic organizations implement new technology to optimize clinical faculty pharmacy practice, consideration must be given to potential challenges in order to maximize use of the technology.

Enhancing Preceptor Knowledge and Confidence in Evaluating Internet Resources by Applying Health-on-the-Net (HON) Principles. Gregory W. Smith, The University of Louisiana at Monroe, Scott A. Baggarly, The University of Louisiana at MonroeObjectives: The purpose of this study was to determine baseline knowledge and confidence of evaluating internet health-related resources and to determine the impact of an exercise designed to enhance pharmacy preceptors’ abilities with regard to evaluating these resources. Method: During a preceptor training conference, a continuing education program introduced the HON principles and provided an interactive exercise to apply the principles in evaluating the quality of internet health-related resources. Participants completed pre- and post-surveys to determine changes in their knowledge of the HON principles and their confidence in applying them. Confidence was measured with a Likert-type scale (1 = not confident at all; 10 = very confident). Before the exercise, the preceptors listed four characteristics of a high quality health-related internet resource that they considered most important based upon their experience and opinion. Following the exercise, they listed the four most important characteristics based upon their new knowledge. Differences in knowledge scores were compared using a paired t-test. Confidence levels were compared using a Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. Characteristics listed before and after the exercise were compared descriptively. Results: The most important quality characteristic changed from “accurate information” at baseline to the HON principle “authoritative” following the exercise. Knowledge scores improved from a mean of 71 to 90.3 (p = 0.0063). All confidence items significantly increased and the participants’ composite confidence scores improved from a median of 6.0 to 8.3 (p < 0.0001). Implications: Knowledge of and confidence in applying HON principles will enhance preceptors’ ability to obtain trustworthy information from internet resources.

Faculty and Student Development Preparing for the Converged Classroom Connecting Two Campuses. Martha H. Carle, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Karen D. Irons, University of Arkansas for Medical SciencesObjectives: Faculty and students will practice with the learning management (LMS) and IVN systems in order to prepare for the delivery of content in the converged classroom based on Constructivist Learning and Chickering and Gamson's Good Practices. Method: With the beginning of a second campus and a new LMS, the eLearning team offered faculty and student development over the summer to support the converged classroom. Faculty (51) and students (265) were immersed in the LMS as students to experience content delivery and practice the fundamentals of course navigation. Faculty (47) and selected students (17) attended hands-on training for the LMS and IVN system throughout the summer. Students (361) also received classroom instruction highlighting various features of the LMS and IVN systems. Results: Faculty requested: 32 LMS course shells (23 Gradebook/Content; 7 Hybrid; and 2 Online). Faculty administered 26 exams and 110 quizzes; 39 Assignments; 36 Blogs; 5 Discussions; 12 Group Assignments; 23 Softchalks and 6 Studymate games through the new LMS. In addition 30 faculty members used clicker technology in the classroom. Over 185 class sessions were archived and placed in the LMS for student review. Implications: With practice through the summer, faculty adopted a more student-centered learning approach to engage learners with the course content. Students were able to experience the learning tools and instructional strategies expected from the converged classroom. Faculty and students reported high satisfaction with the summer development sessions.

An Exercise to Demonstrate Medical Website Selections of First Year Pharmacy Students. Teresa V. Lewis, The University of Oklahoma, TramAnh Nguyen, The University of Oklahoma, Tracy M. Hagemann, The University of Oklahoma, Alice E. Kirkpatrick, The University of OklahomaObjectives: 1. Identify the types of online resources which students refer when answering drug information questions. 2. Evaluate credibility of online resources which students use to answer a given drug information question. Method: Students were assigned two drug information questions to answer using internet resources. Responses and search strategies were summarized and evaluated. The instructor reviewed the advantages and disadvantages of various sites with the students. Results: Most students were able to answer their drug information questions by searching the web with their present skill. Websites most often used by students included: Wikipedia,, Medscape, and Mayo Clinic. When primary literature or practice guidelines were referenced, they were often outdated. In general, students cited credible webpages. However, critical analyses of these sources showed that some were authored by patient groups rather than medical professionals. Implications: Novice pharmacy students question the value of learning about good internet search skills. However, webpages that students refer for drug information may be outdated or lack sufficient details. Pharmacy students are good at searching the Internet, but they are not using the best resources. By understanding the types of resources which students refer for medical information, drug information course instructors are better able to teach and empower students to independently use the best internet resources available. Students’ improved search skills will ultimately provide more accurate and reliable internet drug information retrieval thus positively impacting their quality of patient care in future professional careers.

Are Pharmacy Students Embracing Tablet Technology? Prevalence of Use and Student Perceptions. Margarita V. DiVall, Northeastern University, Christina Guerra, Northeastern UniversityObjectives: Evaluate the prevalence of tablet computer ownership, use scenarios, and perceptions of value of tablet technology among P3 and P4 students. Method: Surveys were administered to 137 P3 and 123 P4 students to identify prevalence of tablet ownership, common uses, and perceived benefits. Results: Among P3 students (80% responded to survey), 12.8% own a tablet computer (71% iPads) and another 18.5% plan to purchase one before graduation. P3 students use tablets most frequently for connectivity (86%), drug information (71%), and class readings (50%). 50% and 57% felt that tablet increased their studying time and learning, respectively. Top barriers for purchase were cost (83%) and uncertainty that benefits are worth the cost (80%). All P4 students responded to survey with 8.9% self-identifying as tablet owners (91% own iPads). 72.7% reported daily use of tablets during rounds to access of drug information resources and decision support tools. 81.8% reported using their tablet for patient education and 72.7% for discharge counseling. All but 1 student (90.9%) agreed or strongly agreed that tablet use enabled them to provide better patient care, stay organized, and learn more during APPEs. While many rotation sites are wireless Internet enabled, only one site allowed students to access electronic medical records on their tablets. Implications: Despite the wide variety of use in didactic and experiential settings and perceived benefits, the prevalence of tablet ownership among our students was relatively low. Survey data can inform other students in their decision to purchase a tablet.

Assessing Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Evaluate High Blood Pressure Measurements Through Evaluation by a Training Arm. Michelle M. Bottenberg, Drake University, Ginelle A. Schmidt, Drake University, Sally L. Haack, Drake University, Chasity Mease, Walgreens Patient Care Center / Drake University, Andrew M. North, Drake UniversityObjectives: To compare student accuracy of normal and high blood pressure measurements. Method: This was a prospective, crossover study comparing accuracy of normal and high blood pressure measurements using a simulator arm. Simulator arms were programmed with pre-specified normal and high readings. Third-year PharmD Candidates enrolled in a required pharmacy skills and applications course participated in the study. Results: One hundred and sixteen students completed both blood pressure measurements. There was a significant difference between the accuracy of high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) compared to normal systolic blood pressure (NSBP) [mean HSBP difference 8.4 + 10.9 mmHg, mean NSBP difference 3.6 + 6.4 mmHg; p value < 0.001]. However, there was not a significant difference between the accuracy of high diastolic blood pressure (HDBP) compared to normal diastolic blood pressure (NDBP) [mean HDBP difference 6.8 + 9.6 mmHg, mean NDBP difference 4.6 + 4.5 mmHg; p value = 0.089]. The number of high attempts and normal attempts were significantly correlated. Implications: Accuracy of student measurement of high systolic blood pressure was different than measurement of normal systolic blood pressure using the simulator arm. The data is suggestive that high blood pressure readings may cause more student inaccuracies. Additional instruction and experience with evaluating high blood pressure measurements may be needed. Future studies could focus on abnormal blood pressures (both high and low) to confirm these findings.

Development and Use of a Mobile Application to Access Drug Information (DI) Resources. Jeffrey C. Reist, The University of Iowa, Alejandro V. DeAnda, The University of Iowa, Jeanine Abrons. Objectives: • To determine University of Iowa Pharmacy students, faculty and staff use of mobile applications to access DI resources. • To determine which of the drug information resources within the mobile application have been accessed by users of the mobile application Method: A mobile application was created using Google® Android App Inventor to contain links to websites frequently used by University of Iowa College of Pharmacy students, faculty, and staff. The Android application was entitled the “Iowa COP app” and submitted to the Android Market to allow for downloading of the application to Android devices. An email sent to University of Iowa College of Pharmacy students, faculty and staff members via list serves announced availability of the app for download. An online survey gathered information from app users to assess current utilization in 2010-2011. Results: At survey administration, 152 individuals had installed the Iowa COP app on an Android device. A survey response rate of 31.6% was achieved (n=48). Respondents were comprised of 27.1 % P1s (n=13); 25% P2s (n=12); 22.9% P3s (n=11); 8.3% P4s (n=4); and 16.7% faculty or staff (n=8). A majority of respondents used the app more than once 87.5%. Ninety-three percent of respondents agreed or strongly agreed the Iowa COP app allowed for easier access of linked resources. Sixty-seven percent of respondents accessed DI resources; and 47% used the application to answer a DI question. During a one-month period, Lexi-Comp most commonly accessed DI resources (56.5% use), followed by Clinical Pharmacology, PubMed, MICROMEDEX, AHFS, and IDIS (at 45.7%; 19.6%, 15.2%; 6.5%, and 4.3%, respectively). The application was not used by 28.3% within a one-month period. Implications: A majority of users surveyed found the Iowa COP Android application made access of DI resources easier. A majority of respondents had accessed DI resources (2/3). A frequent use of the app was to answer DI questions. Lexi-Comp and Clinical Pharmacology were the most frequently used DI resources.

Evaluation of Interprofessional Learning Through a Patient Case Simulation. Susanne G. Barnett, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Paula A. Jarzemsky, University of Wisconsin-MadisonObjectives: To evaluate pharmacy and nursing students’ perception, attitudes, and readiness towards interprofessional learning before and after completion of an interdisciplinary simulation exercise. Method: Pharmacy (n = 16) and nursing (n = 21) students completed a survey before and/or after participating in a patient case simulation, using SimMan® technology, where they formed five interdisciplinary groups of 7-8 students. Survey questions were adapted from a previously validated interprofessional survey and queried team-work and collaboration, professional identity, and roles and responsibilities to assess perceptions, attitudes, and readiness towards interprofessional learning. Questions used a Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree or not important to strongly agree or extremely important. Between group assessments were performed using paired and unpaired t-tests. Results: In general, combined discipline baseline survey scores were high (means ranged from 4.0-4.9 on a 5-point scale). No statistical differences in baseline compared to post-simulation were found in the professional identity and roles and responsibilities subgroups. Student agreement that respect and trust be present in order for small-group learning to take place decreased following the simulation (mean [95% CI]) (4.8 [95% CI 4.5-5.0] (n=23) versus 4.3 [95% CI 3.9-4.7] (n=25), p=0.04). When students compared importance of interprofessional learning before and after the simulation, pharmacy students reported a numerically increased importance (n=13, p=0.053) while nursing students did not (n=12, p=0.166). Implications: In this pilot study, implementation of an interprofessional simulation did not appear to significantly alter students’ perception and attitudes towards interdisciplinary learning. However, numerical trends were found between pharmacy and nursing student groups.

Perceived Utility of a Distance Learning System in a Professional University by Students and Faculty. Benjamin Chavez, University of Hawaii at Hilo, Paula Zeszotarski, University of Hawaii at HiloObjectives: Many colleges of pharmacy are using distance learning technologies to reach students in different cities within a state. At the University of Hawaii at Hilo, we have a unique situation in that we are not only teaching in different cities, but on different islands. We conducted a survey to identify the perceived strengths and weaknesses of our current distance learning technology (Polycom with audio and video). Method: Two surveys were distributed online. One was sent to faculty who teach using Polycom (n=6), while the other was sent to second, third, and fourth year professional pharmacy students who have been taught using Polycom (n=259). Results: A total of 167/259 students (64%) responded. Fifty-seven percent of students felt Polycom lectures were less effective, while 43% felt they were just as effective, as lectures given in person. Forty-seven percent felt they learned more from in-person lectures. All faculty who responded (4/6), felt Polycom was less effective. Thirty-nine percent of students said they were more likely to attend lecture if it was in person, while 59% said it had no influence on their attendance. Both faculty and students listed technical difficulties, lack of participation by students, and inability to ask questions as the biggest challenges to delivering lectures via Polycom. Implications: Based on the results of the survey, teaching by faculty can be modified to suit the strengths and weaknesses of the Polycom. In particular, faculty can improve the distance-learning courses by incorporating new technologies that facilitate different methods of faculty-student interaction.

Student Pharmacist Experience with Online Learning and Academic Performance. Jana Sterling, The University of Tennessee, Alexander B. Guirguis, The University of Tennessee, Katie J. Suda, The University of TennesseeObjectives: While technology has emerged into higher education, graduate education has been slower to adapt. The objective of this study was to evaluate student pharmacist experience and academic performance in the first offering of a literature evaluation course with online lectures in the pharmacy curriculum. Method: An anonymous online survey was administered to third-year student pharmacists near semester completion. Exam scores from the new course approach were compared with the traditional offering the previous year. Chi-Squared and t-test were used for statistical analysis; p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was a 98% survey response rate (40% Knoxville, 60% Memphis). Student demographics did not differ by campus (p = NS). 53% completed an online course as undergraduates; of these 22% were science courses. In the pharmacy curriculum, students preferred viewing lectures online using Mediasite software (44.8%) or had no preference (16.8%), but 38.5% preferred traditional lectures. With online lectures, most students viewed lectures on time (course statistics = 77.9%; self-reported = 71.3%). Compared to the previous year, there was no difference in midterm exam scores, but students enrolled in the new course scored significantly higher on the final (p < 0.0001). Students reported that nothing was missed with online lectures (37.8%), but 28.7% stated that live lectures force them to keep up with course material and 18.9% felt that online lectures were less engaging. Implications: A course with online lectures was well accepted by students with no adverse impact on exam grades. However, student timeliness viewing online lectures prior to deadlines could be improved.
this intervention.

The Impact of Portable Tablet Technology in a Pharmacy Practice Laboratory. William Maidhof, St. John's University, Marc Gillespie, St. John's University, Chung Lee, North Shore University HospitalObjectives: To determine if portable, web-ready technology such as a tablet enhances patient counseling methods during mock counseling sessions. Method: Second professional year students (n = 27) enrolled in the respiratory section of a pharmacy practice laboratory were randomly assigned either to a tablet or control group. Both groups were given access to identical drug information resources and a therapeutics textbook; the control group used a desktop computer, as is standard laboratory practice. During patient counseling, students were allowed to bring the tablet into the counseling room in addition to written notes; the control group was allowed only written notations. IRB-approved surveys were developed and administered following each counseling session: one student and one evaluator. In addition, evaluators completed counseling rubrics assessing product-specific information at the conclusion of the counseling session. A statistical analysis of the results included calculations of the mean, standard deviation, and a student's t-test. A Pearson analysis was used to determine the type of correlation within the data sets. Results: Students using a tablet were assessed to perform better in information delivery and engagement, as judged by eye contact. Implications: Considering ease of use and portability, a tablet proved to be useful in regards to more accurate information delivered as part of the counseling session, though connection (empathy) to patient and self-assessment of preparedness may have been impacted.

Use of Technology to Facilitate Learning Top 200 Drug Information. Krista Dominguez-Salazar, The University of New Mexico, Donald A. Godwin, The University of New Mexico, Lucas McGrath, The University of New MexicoObjectives: To facilitate acquiring Top 200 drug knowledge through self-directed formative assessments, repetition and immediate performance feedback. Method: An interactive web site was developed through collaboration between a pharmacy student, faculty and staff. The website offers fill-in-the-blank, multiple-choice and flashcard formative learning activities. Drug information includes brand/generic name(s), therapeutic and pharmacologic classification, and controlled substance status. The website has a test bank that contains over 1500 interactive questions and provides immediate feedback. Student-Top 200 drug-knowledge is summatively assessed through 10 weekly quizzes and 4 exams in the first semester of pharmacy school. Quiz and exam content is randomly assigned via computer generation using the Top 200 website. Results: A number of variables from the formative assessments were correlated with overall average score on the summative quizzes and exams and the best correlations were seen with average formative score (r = 0.498) and number of formative questions answered correctly (r = 0.489). Less well correlated variables included number of tests taken and number of questions answered. Implications: The data showed that success on formative assessments was positively correlated with success on summative assessments. These summative assessments were focused on knowledge based questions and student performance was very high (94.5 ± 4.7%). Subsequent assessment will be more application based and it is anticipated that the foundation set by continued use of the Top 200 database will result in better correlation with performance on these summative assessments.

Use of a Digital Backchannel as an Interactive Classroom Discussion Tool. Stacy Taylor, University of Kentucky, Melody H. Ryan, University of Kentucky, Mary M. Piascik, University of Kentucky, Jeff J. Cain, University of KentuckyObjectives: Characterize the usefulness of a digital backchannel as a classroom discussion tool. Method: Backchanneling is a form of classroom communication, not between the instructor and students, that includes traditional (whispering and note-passing) and contemporary (texting, email, or other digital) forms that may or may not pertain to the learning activity. Instructors used an internet-based backchannel to garner questions, answers, and comments about lecture and patient case material during separate classes for second (PY2) and third (PY3) year students. Students completed an electronic survey before the backchannel activity. Results: 124 of 131 (94.7%) PY2s and 123 of 126 (97.6%) PY3s completed the survey. 74% of PY2s and 85.8% of PY3s report not asking questions they have one or more times per week. The most frequent reason for not asking was “will ask a friend later”. 45.2% of PY2s and 25.4% of PY3s report previous use of digital communication with classmates during class to ask a class-related question. 70% of PY2s and 75.6% of PY3s anticipated that an official digital backchannel would be helpful. 74 (56.4%) PY2s and 61 (48.4%) PY3s posted a total of 146 and 161 comments, respectively. 46.2% of PY2 comments and 48.6% of PY3 comments pertained to the topic and consisted of responses to questions and requests for clarification. Faculty felt the backchannel increased class participation and yielded a greater number of questions/clarifications. Implications: A digital backchannel can be useful in generating classroom discussion. Further research is needed in this area.
Technological Advances in Pharmacy Curriculum: Assessment Processes. Kelly L. Matson, The University of Rhode Island, Jayne E. Pawasauskas, The University of Rhode IslandObjectives: Technology has been shown to have beneficial effects in certain classroom settings. Objectives of this study are to: (1) introduce a technological approach to student assessment while limiting potential for e-cheating or academic dishonesty during examinations, (2) implement a cost-effective alternative to paper-based examinations and determine sustainability and feasibility of implementing this method University-wide, and (3) improve remediation and assessment of competencies of pharmacy program. Method: Numerous products offering online examinations were screened, and the best fit was selected. Software has begun trial implementation in pharmacy elective courses. Pre-and post- implementation surveys assessing perceptions and software utility will be administered to students and faculty. Economic analyses will determine cost-effectiveness of online examination methods compared to existing methods. Results: Initial data analysis indicated that the Pharmacy Practice Department alone spends approximately $30,000 annually on the current paper-based examination methods. Follow-up analysis is expected to demonstrate cost-savings of ≥ 50% with utilization of online examinations. Pre-implementation survey data indicated 67.7% of students feel strategies to reduce cheating are needed, 88% feel using online examinations would help prepare them for licensing examinations, and all students surveyed would like assessment of their progress throughout the pharmacy curriculum. Implications: Demonstration of outcomes will allow incorporation into required coursework within the College, and ultimately, the entire University. A major advantage to this software is its ability to provide longitudinal outcomes across skill sets. This feature will allow better understanding of students’ strengths and weaknesses, assist with remediation processes, and ultimately assist with the College's accreditation measures.

Using Rural Hospital Staff Peer Review Teleconferences for Case-based Learning for Physicians and Pharmacy Students. Bree C. Watzak, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Robert H. Stanberry, Texas A&M Health Science Center, Lisa Killam-Worrall, Texas A&M Health Science Center. Texas A&M Health Science Center (TAMHSC) College of Pharmacy faculty members partnered with the TAMHSC Rural and Community Health Institute (RCHI) to offer a unique program to address a special need of rural hospitals – physician peer review. The Rural Physician Peer Review Program (RPPR)© is an “internal” program facilitated by RCHI which uses e-technology and teleconferencing to bring physicians together to discuss patient care. Information is provided through a HIPAA-compliant, secure web portal. The actual meeting is conducted via a secure conference call. Pharmacy faculty began by assisting physicians in evaluation of prescribed therapy and medication “systems” issues. RPPR© promotes shared learning which incorporated into the peer review process, removing bias and the traditional punitive focus. When “systems” issues are recognized, feedback is provided to the hospital as opportunities for improvement. This information can then be used to enhance the hospital's quality and safety programs. RPPR© has grown from an initial two hospitals in 2003, to the current 57 participating hospitals. The College of Pharmacy has strengthened its position by offering student participation by making it a pharmacy elective as well as an APPE rotation experience. Pharmacy students gained a unique perspective as they were able to listen to the physicians analyze through their thought processes. Additionally, the process of retrospectively reviewing a medical record is a different approach to patient care than typically being provided in the didactic portion of the curriculum. The availability of the entire patient story is new and yet necessary for future professional duties.

Using the iPad Tablet for Didactic and Experiential Teaching: Faculty Experiences and Perceptions. Margarita V. DiVall, Northeastern University, Michael Gonyeau, Northeastern University, Jennifer Kirwin, Northeastern University, David P. Zgarrick, Northeastern UniversityObjectives: To describe faculty experience with and perceptions about using iPads for teaching and practice activities. Method: A web-based survey was administered to pharmacy practice faculty to determine experience with the iPad device. Faculty rated the benefits of iPad use on a 4-rating Likert scale and described ways to use the device in professional activities. Results: Of 29 respondents (94%), 7 (24%) were current users. Four reported using iPads for teaching in the classroom and for paper/project annotation. Five users (71%) reported using it for student assessment. Current users also reported accessing electronic medical record (EMR) and drug information resources, documenting interventions, performing medication reconciliation and patient education resources on the device. Of the 22 non-users, 81% were interested in using an iPad for teaching and practice. The following were identified as “very likely” use scenarios: connectivity (81%), student assessment (76%), experiential teaching (70%), paper annotation (62%), and seminar/lab teaching (62%). Non-users with clinical sites stated they could use it to access drug information resources (91%), for documentation (73%), patient education (73%), EMR access (55%), and medication reconciliation (55%). Overall, faculty agreed iPads could: foster innovation in experiential (3.61) and classroom settings (3.52); decrease paper waste (3.54); positively impact patient care (3.41) and ability to create course materials (3.36); make student assessment more efficient (3.36); and increase productivity (3.31). Implications: Faculty identified many potential uses for iPad tablets in the classroom and practice settings. As a result, the department plans to provide devices for each faculty member.

Point of Care Documentation of Clinical Interventions by Pharmacy Students on Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences. John A. Kappes, South Dakota State University, Joe D. Strain, South Dakota State University, Jodi R. Heins, South Dakota State University, Debra K. Farver, South Dakota State UniversityObjectives: Evaluate a point of care documentation system designed for internet mobile devices for student utilization on Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experiences (APPEs) to promote development of documentation skills, allow for assessment of interventions, and provide institutions quantitative data on student impact. Method: A documentation tool was developed utilizing QuestionPro. Students on Faculty APPEs were requested to answer ten questions for each intervention via mobile or desktop/laptop device. Follow-up surveys were completed by students and faculty. Results: Sixty-four students on 85 APPEs completed 2,370 interventions, which averages 27.9 (Median=21) interventions per student per rotation at a rate of 1.1 (Median=0.84) interventions per student per day. The average time to document each intervention was approximately 1 minute. Most often interventions were made for patients with a primary admitting diagnosis of infectious disease (25.01%). The most common interventions were dose adjustments (13.77%), addition of a medication (11.53%), and monitoring laboratory order (10.73%). Nearly all interventions were accepted by providers (96.58%). The majority of students utilized a desktop/laptop computer (71.1%) for documentation. Overall 60% of students (Desktop/laptop=59.2%, mobile device=63.6%) rated the documentation tool as “very easy to use.” On a scale of one to ten, 85.7% of Faculty rated a seven or greater on their overall opinion of the documentation tool. Implications: The option to use either a mobile or desktop/laptop device was effective and may impact the extent of student documentation. While most students used a desktop/laptop computer, students using a mobile device found the tool just as easy to use.

Point of Care Testing by Pharmacists: Serving, Learning and Advancing the Profession. Laura C. Palombi, University of Minnesota, Karen M.S. Bastianelli, University of Minnesota, Timothy P. Stratton, University of MinnesotaObjectives: The Wellness Initiative of the Northland (WIN) program enables student pharmacists, Pharmacy Practice faculty and local pharmacists to provide free screenings for dyslipidemias, hypertension, diabetes and osteoporosis to medically underserved patients in northeast Minnesota and northwest Wisconsin. Method: Since 2009, a total of 160 student pharmacists, 15 pharmacy practice faculty and 30 community pharmacists have participated in disease screenings and education for adult health fair attendees in rural and urban communities every year. Results: The WIN program has provided 4,152 point-of-care tests for over 2000 individuals. Of 999 patients who had dyslipidemia screening performed, out-of-range results were obtained for 40.3% of total cholesterol readings, 6.9 % of LDL cholesterol readings, 22.5% of HDL cholesterol readings and 12.8% of triglyceride levels. Among 1,292 patients screened for hyperglycemia, 24.8% had glucose levels considered out of range. Of the 831 patients screened for hypertension, 24.3% had levels considered out of range. Of 1,030 patients who underwent bone density testing, 38.7% were considered at risk for osteopenia or osteoporosis. Health fair attendees who had at least one disease screening result out-of-range were referred to their primary health care provider for follow-up care. Implications: Community point-of-care disease screenings planned, coordinated and conducted by a School/College of Pharmacy provide not only a public health service to the community, but serve as a vehicle for professional engagement and development for student pharmacists and pharmacists. Point-of-care screenings at community health fairs are an excellent way for pharmacists to advance the profession while providing care for medically underserved members of the community.

RxQuest: An iPad Adventure Game Teaching ASHP Entry-level Competencies. Gary D. Theilman, The University of Mississippi, Matthew W. Strum, The University of MississippiObjectives: To create and assess a tool to teach second-year pharmacy students competencies based on ASHP's “Entry-level Competencies Needed for Pharmacy Practice in Hospitals and Health-Systems”. Method: We created a simulation which used graphics, text and sound to allow students to play a pharmacist moving about the lobby, pharmacy and patient floors of a virtual hospital. During the simulation, students encountered traditional “computer adventure game”-type puzzles (e.g., “Zork”, “King's Quest”) requiring them to learn and apply ASHP competencies. The puzzles included correctly garbing to access a USP 797 clean room, using bar codes (scanned with their own cell phones), reconciling medication records, responding to drug information requests, solving IV compatibility problems and filing a medication error report. Journal articles strategically placed on corkboards, shelves and received from non-player characters in the virtual world helped the students research the competencies. While designed for iPad, the program also runs on other web browsers. Students were later assessed with a written exam that included questions testing their retention of the skills learned during the game. Results: Most completed the simulation in under two hours. The USP 797 puzzle took the longest as some students repeatedly tried garbing in random order before finally reading the guidelines. Discrimination indices of exam questions related to the exercise were positive. Anonymous evaluations showed many enjoyed the game. The game has been provided to faculty at other schools on request. Implications: The program provided an engaging process in which students could simulate being a pharmacist while practicing competencies in a low-risk environment.

“Open-book” Internet Access During a High-stakes Exam. Gary D. Theilman, The University of Mississippi, Daniel Riche, The University of MississippiObjectives: Our students take a series of high-stakes “open-book” problem-solving exams. Despite repeated requests from students, allowing open-book access to Internet resources (drug databases, guidelines, manufacturer websites, etc.) during the exam seemed unfeasible due to potential for collaboration and use of unauthorized software. Our goal was to create a process which controlled and monitored laptop use during the exam. Method: Each student was issued a numbered USB flash drive containing a “portable” web browser modified to stay in full screen mode, preventing use of other software on the laptop. Exam webpages rejected connections from all other browsers. Page requests were routed through a proxy server which blocked mail, chat and social networking sites. Modifying the browser history was disabled. Intermittent snapshots of the student's laptop screen and a log of all keystrokes typed during the exam were automatically stored on the USB drive. Afterwards, the contents of the USB drive were archived for potential review. The software made no changes to the student's computer and was assembled from no-cost components. Results: 82% of students agreed that they felt confident the process prevented other students from using their laptops to gain an unfair advantage during the exam. 81% felt the software was easy to use and 77% agreed that they were able to access the online resources they needed. Students felt faculty having archived browser histories to be the most effective deterrent to cheating. Implications: This process allows students access to online resources while maintaining confidence in the exam's integrity.

Assessment of Internet and Social Media Use for Educational Purposes by Third-Year Pharmacy Students. Natalia G. Shcherbakova, The University of Texas at Austin, J. Nile Barnes, The University of Texas at Austin, Rochelle M. Roberts, The University of Texas at Austin, James P. Wilson, The University of Texas at AustinObjectives: 1)Determine the extent third-year pharmacy students (P3s) use Facebook, Twitter and other social networks for educational purposes; 2) Identify perceptions of P3s towards using social media for educational purposes; 3) Identify courses within pharmacy curriculum that P3s consider most appropriate for incorporating social media. Method: We created a 10-item instrument with questions addressing the objectives of the study and basic demographics (gender, age). The survey was set up online using Qualtrics® and pilot tested by five P4s. An invitation email with the web-link was sent to all P3s (123). Results: The response rate was 40% (49 of 123). Average respondent age was 25.4 (±2.8), and the majority was female (68%). Facebook was used by 67%, Twitter by 4% and YouTube by 33% of P3s for educational purposes, respectively. The mean score on a question asking if social media can be effectively used to improve pharmacy education was 3.72 (±1.03) (scale 1 (disagree) to 5 (agree)). The mean score on a question asking if social media may improve students’ learning experiences was 3.68 (±1.12). Pharmacy courses that were most frequently selected as appropriate for incorporating social media were professional development convocation (56%), introduction to pharmacy practice (54%), drug information and evidence-based practice (53%), and nonprescription pharmacotherapeutics (53%). Implications: Overall, social media use for educational purposes by P3s was moderate to low. Due to the overall positive perceptions towards use of social media within the pharmacy curriculum, its use may be embraced by several mandatory and elective pharmacy courses.

Creating an Open-Source Electronic Journal. Eli G. Phillips, University of the Incarnate Word, Tina C. Lopez, University of the Incarnate Word, William D. Linn, University of the Incarnate WordObjectives: Identify and implement a system to start a peer-reviewed publication online. Method: The pharmacy faculty consulted with a convergent media faculty member to investigate options for submitting, reviewing, editing, publishing, and viewing articles online. The group discussed limitations and benefits of all options concerning work to create the website, ease of use, and maintenance. Two primary options were investigated: 1) create a website to post articles and 2) use Open Journal Systems (OJS), an open source content management system. The first option would require the journal's editorial team to manage the author submissions, review process, and editorial process on their own. In addition, the team would need a web-master to post articles and maintain the website. OJS offered built-in policies, author submission process, reviewing/editing process, editor/author communication capabilities, subscription process, and simple navigation of the website. Because of the straightforward documentation, there were few limitations in terms of educating the journal staff on the reviewing, editing, and publishing process of OJS. Results: The group selected OJS due to the robust and professional processes available. The first issue of the journal was published using Open Journal Systems. Due to the time needed for training of editors to use the software, the author submission and review/editorial process was used for the second issue of the journal. Implications: OJS is a robust product that can be used for peer-reviewed serial publications. Initiatives like OJS are key to academic pursuit of knowledge sharing.

Impact of Electronic Device Use by Pharmacy Students on Academic Performance. William A. Prescott, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Heather L. Johnson, University at BuffaloThe State University of New York, Mark J. Wrobel, University at BuffaloThe State University of New York, Kelly Sustakoski, University at Buffalo, The State University of New York, Gina M. Prescott, University at Buffalo, The State University of New YorkObjectives: To evaluate electronic device use (course-related/non-course-related) by pharmacy students during a pharmacotherapeutics sequence and assess its impact on academic performance. Method: A validated online survey assessing the type, nature, and extent of electronic device use during class was distributed to 238 second and third-year pharmacy students enrolled in two separate 4-credit hour pharmacotherapeutics courses. Following completion of the course, a retrospective analysis of student grades was performed. Electronic device use and its impact on academic performance were assessed using Chi-square / Fisher's Exact Tests and the Kruskal-Wallis test, respectively. Results: A total of 140/238 students were included (survey response rate 58.8%). Use of electronic devices during class was reported by 106/140 (75.7%) students. Among students using electronic devices, 97 (91.5%) and 86 (81.1%) reported using them for course-related and non-course-related reasons, respectively. The mean course grade among students using and not using electronic devices during class was 89.5% and 90.6% (p=0.703), respectively. Although electronic device use did not impact academic performance among third-year students (p=0.858), second-year students performed better academically if they did not use an electronic device during class (88.5% vs. 83.3%, p=0.019). Implications: The use of electronic devices during class, for both course-related and non-course-related reasons, is common among pharmacy students. Although electronic device use is associated with a negligible impact on academic performance overall, their use by students early in the curriculum may negatively impact academics. These findings should be considered when schools develop policies pertaining to electronic device use by pharmacy students during class.

Evaluation of a Simulated Hospital Pharmacy Module Using an EMR in a Pharmacy Skills Laboratory. Jennifer Kirwin, Northeastern University, Margarita V. DiVall, Northeastern University, Christina Guerra, Northeastern University, Todd A. Brown, Northeastern UniversityObjectives: To evaluate the effects of a simulated hospital pharmacy module using an electronic medical record (EMR) [Meditech, Westwood, MA] in a skills laboratory course on student confidence and abilities to perform tasks typical of a pharmacist. Method: The course contained a module that simulated typical tasks of a hospital pharmacist. All students were asked to complete web-based pre- and post-surveys about their work experience and confidence using EMRs; reviewing prepared sterile products; performing medication reconciliation, discharge counseling and patient presentations. Twenty three attitudinal questions were asked using a 4-point Likert scale. Anonymous unique identifiers linked pre- to post-survey results. The Related-Samples Wilcoxon Signed Rank test was used to compare pre- and post- responses. Course assessments evaluated covered competencies. Results: Ninety seven percent and 81.5% of students completed pre- and post-surveys, respectively. 97% of respondents reported full-time hospital internship experience. 73% had EMR experience. On the pre-survey, mean ranks ranged from 1.48 to 2.92, indicating low comfort/confidence with typical hospital pharmacist tasks. Mean ranks increased on the post-survey for all questions, ranging from 1.97 to 3.39 (p<0.001 for all comparisons) indicating moderate comfort. Course assessments confirmed student achievement of covered competencies. Implications: Despite substantial hospital internship experience, students reported low comfort/confidence with typical hospital pharmacist activities. Students’ comfort significantly improved after completion of the module. This demonstrates that laboratory simulation can improve the comfort and skills required in practice.

Keeping Leadership Students Learning Outside the Classroom: Designing an Elective Utilizing Blended Pedagogy and Twitter. Lauren S. Schlesselman, University of ConnecticutObjectives: *To develop leadership course focused on servant leadership (SL) and advocacy/outreach development *To evaluate Twitter as a means to increase student engagement Method: Course designed to cover 3 modules, identified by student leaders as needs: basic skills, SL, and developing advocacy/outreach activities. Out-of-class activities included online lectures, discussions, readings, homework, tweeting, and developing outreach proposal based on ADDIE model. In-class activities involved team building and active learning activities. After reading “The Fred Factor” and “29 gifts,” overcame challenge of applying SL by requiring students to post tweets 5days/week stating how they had been servant leader that day. Results: Students appreciated active learning approach; course evaluation showed mean 9.7 (1-10) on achieving objectives and 10 for stimulating interest. Students requested expansion of interviewing skils and “egg drop from sixth floor” team building activity. None of the students used Twitter before course but viewed as positive aspect of course, effective application of SL by thinking about what they do each day for others. All but one student posted the minimum required tweets. Twitter expanded beyond anticipated use with students reporting peers/friends following them on Twitter, posting own SL activities. Students expanded tweets to include background information/videos for classmates on upcoming advocacy presentation. All students elected to complete an independent study the following semester in which, as a group, they would implement one of the advocacy proposals. Implications: Active learning activities provided effective application of leadership skills, while Twitter allowed students to also model skills for other students/friends.

Social Media Use in a Pediatric Pharmacotherapy Elective Course. Gary Milavetz, The University of Iowa, Marwa M. Ithman, The University of Iowa, Andrew Spurgin, The University of Iowa, Susan S. Vos, The University of IowaObjectives: Social media allows users to keep abreast of current events and discoveries, quickly disseminate useful findings and allow for the creation of user-generated commentary. However, there is little data available describing the use of social media in a pharmacy course. The objective of our project is to describe and assess the utilization of social media in a pediatric pharmacotherapy course. Method: Students were given a pre-course survey to assess their interest level and use of various social media websites. A closed Facebook© group was created for all members of the class and guidelines were established for posting to the group. Participation in the Facebook© group was optional. All members had the ability to post new information, ask questions and comment on prior posts. A post-course survey was given to assess student use and overall impressions. Results: All 14 students enrolled in the class completed the pre-course survey and indicated an overwhelming interest in participation. Thirteen completed the post-course survey. Forty-seven news items and 60 comments were posted during the 15-week class. Students made the majority of posts. All students agreed the Facebook© group should continue to be part of the class and 77% agreed it enhanced their educational experience. Implications: The utilization of a social media site in the pediatrics pharmacotherapy elective course enhanced the educational experience of students. The type of social media employed, posting requirements, and the ability to choose to opt out without negative consequences are important for the successful implementation of social media in pharmacy education.

Evaluating the Online Networking Relationships Between Preceptors and Pharmacy Students. Timothy R. Ulbrich, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Anne H. Metzger, University of Cincinnati, Kristen F. Sobota, Ohio Northern University, James W. McAuley, The Ohio State UniversityObjectives: To describe pharmacy preceptor use of Facebook and compare the perspectives of those with and without Facebook profiles regarding student-preceptor relationships Method: A survey was sent electronically to pharmacy practice preceptors (n = 2523) at four colleges of pharmacy asking them to provide their opinions on the student/preceptor Facebook relationship. If respondents answered “yes” to having a Facebook profile, they were asked 12 questions. If respondents answered “no”, they were asked 2 questions. Demographic data were collected on all respondents. Two reminder emails were sent before the survey closed after 24 days. Results: Of the 612 total respondents (response rate = 24.3%), 413 preceptors (67%) currently maintain a Facebook page, while 199 (33%) do not. The majority of responders (93%) use Facebook for social networking, 27% use it for professional networking or campaigning, and 6% use it to collaborate with colleagues. Fifty-four percent of the preceptors are not friends with students on Facebook, while 46% are, although 10% of responders do limit what the student can view on their profile. Responses were highly varied when asked how they would handle a ‘friend request,’ including accept it right away, after some thought, or simply decline it. Implications: As the use of these social media sites increase, the need arises for preceptors to discuss and/or clearly define the appropriateness of social networking relationships without compromising the line between the personal and professional relationships with pharmacy students.

Evaluating the Use of Virtual Patients (VpSim) versus Traditional Problem-Based Learning in Advanced Professional Experience Rotations. Sara A. Al-Dahir, Xavier University of Louisiana, Kendrea A. Bryant, Xavier University of Louisiana, Kathleen B. Kennedy, Xavier University of Louisiana, Donna Robinson, Xavier University of LouisianaObjectives: To evaluate the efficacy of faculty-led problem based learning versus virtual simulated patient case in fourth- year pharmacy students. Method: IRB approval was received. The study was designed as a supplemental patient-based learning case to the APPE experience (N=80 students). Students were randomly assigned to participate in branched case learning using virtual cases (VpSim platform) or faculty led problem based learning. A pre-and post-test assessment and a 12- question opinion survey were used (1=Strongly Disagree to 5 = Strongly Agree). The on-line virtual case was composed of several learning nodes that simulated a real hospital patient case. In the seven-member small group problem-based learning, students worked through the exact same case with faculty mentoring. The test scores and opinion survey were analyzed using ANOVA analysis and logistic regression. Results: There was no significant difference found (VpSim versus PBL) in the post-test scores (45% versus 49%) or the mean percent increase from base pre-test score (0% versus 18%). A significant difference was observed on the Likert score results (VpSim versus PBL) with regard to student satisfaction with the learning platform introducing new information (4.2 vs 4.5) (p=.000) and reinforcing previous learning (4.2 vs 4.4) (p=.014). Implications: The authors wanted to assess student's acquisition and application of branching case methods to prepare for the national licensure examination. Problem-based learning is known to have success in preparing students to focus learning on core information relevant to real clinical scenarios and adaptive feedback and is a slightly preferred method to individual virtual patient scenarios.

Incorporating Social Media Into A Required Drug Literature Evaluation Course. Maria D. Kostka-Rokosz, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences-Boston, Lana Dvorkin-Camiel, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences-Boston, William W. McCloskey, Massachusetts College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences-BostonObjectives: To survey and evaluate professional use of social media, level of comfort and engagement of PY2 pharmacy students following the Center for Drug Information and Natural Products Facebook page. Method: A Facebook page ( was developed to provide daily news updates in pharmacy to the College community and others. In Fall 2011, students in the required Drug Literature Evaluation course were asked to “like or follow” the page and its activities. At course completion, students were asked about the value of this assignment to their professional development and ways to publicize the page making it more useful to them and their colleagues. Results: Two hundred fifty-one students completed the survey. The majority was comfortable using Facebook before the project, with three quarters using it often for personal interactions and only 10% using it often professionally. The main reasons for professional use were participation in professional groups (65%), keeping up with pharmacy news (44%), and medical news (42%). One–third never contributed to previous professional discussions. Ninety-eight percent felt this project helped them stay current with health-related topics. Sixty-nine percent would definitely recommend the service to friends while 84% would definitely recommend it to colleagues. Eighty percent are definitely planning to continue following the page after course completion and half definitely planned to contribute to future discussions. Implications: This project further exposed students to professional use of social media and engaged them in a less conventional learning environment encouraging them to develop the characteristics of life-long learners.

Development And Integration Of Virtual Reality (SecondLife®) Simulation Into Pharmacy Curriculum. Glenn J. Whelan, University of South Florida, Erini S. Serag, University of South Florida, Joshua Z. Jackson, University of South Florida, Srinivas M. Tipparaju, University of South Florida, Umesh K. Jinwal, University of South Florida, Heather M.W. Petrelli, University of South Florida, Amy H. Schwartz, University of South FloridaObjectives: The primary objective was to integrate a patient case simulation for students in a virtual reality (SecondLife® (SL)) setting, which incorporated concepts from multiple courses into one applied format. This activity introduced students to a simulated practice environment, underscoring one of the program's pillars of bioinformatics. Method: A working group of faculty and an instructional designer/3-D virtual simulation developer developed objectives, script, rubrics, and outcome measures for the simulation assignment. The simulation was a scenario in a retail pharmacy setting, where students assumed the role of a pharmacist reviewing, preparing, verifying, and dispensing a prescription for an antibiotic suspension with patient counseling. All students created their own avatars for use in SL. Artificial intelligent patient avatars were constructed in SL, and refined with a beta group (ten students). Copies of the pharmacies and avatars were generated, and students were assigned to a pharmacy to complete the simulation assignment. Students evaluated the assignment through survey and course evaluations. Results: Fifty-three PY1 students successfully completed the simulation assignment. Feedback evaluation suggested the students learned from the simulation and became proficient in SL use. Additional feedback suggested the necessity for enhancement of the patient avatars for a more robust patient-student interaction. Implications: Virtual Reality simulation in SL is a valuable approach to integrate multiple dimensions of Bloom's Taxonomy in the curriculum while providing students with multiple opportunities to demonstrate competency. Future endeavors will include the expansion into new pharmacy environments and different standardized patients to encompass a variety of increasingly complex patient-centered pharmacy cases

Utilizing Skype to Deliver Pharmacology Instruction to a Caribbean Based Veterinary School. W. Elaine Blythe, University of FloridaObjectives: To describe the utilization of Skype to deliver 7 credit hours of pharmacology instruction to veterinary students at St. Matthew's University, School of Veterinary Medicine in Grand Cayman from the instructor's office in the United States. Method: Skype software was downloaded on the computer located in the classroom and onto the instructors computer. During scheduled class periods the instructor calls into the classroom. External speakers, a microphone and a headset allow for two-way communication. The Skype lectures guided students through the required veterinary pharmacology textbook and allowed for real-time question/answer sessions, integration of case examples, clinical pearls and reiteration of important topics. Qualitative data was collected on the student opinions on the use of Skype at the end of semester. Results: Students were overwhelmingly positive on the use of Skype in the teaching environment. Specifically; the weekly sessions augmented their knowledge of veterinary pharmacology and made them more responsible for their learning. Examples given during Skype lectures were clinically relevant and practical. The instant messaging function on Skype allowed students significant access to the instructor, more so than for faculty “on island”. Students reported being initially apprehensive of the distance format in the curriculum but quickly came to appreciate the utility of Skype. Implications: The use of Skype to deliver pharmacology lectures was seen as a positive and enjoyable learning experience by veterinary students. The instructors’ previous training and experience in pharmacy distance education provided a solid framework for the first distance education course in the veterinary school.

Utilizing ‘Turn It In': Assessing Academic Integrity in the Admissions Process. Heather M.W. Petrelli, University of South Florida, Jacqueline A. Grosser, University of South FloridaObjectives: In the 2010-2011 academic year, PharmCAS made available for the first time the Turn It In plagiarism identification service. This poster will explain and discuss how one school utilized the newly offered service in the admissions screening process. Guidelines are also shared by which determinations were made regarding what was considered significant enough to justify a report to AACP. Method: All applications received by PharmCAS were reviewed individually to identify Turn It In Reports All positive reports were investigated individually by identifying the source, which helps to make a distinction regarding the egregious nature of the potential plagiarism (e.g. a website with sole purpose of helping applicants write and admissions essay). Results of investigation were shared with admissions committee and a review was conducted incorporating all pertinent information. The Admissions committee voted on which cases deem report to AACP. Once AACP notified applicants and identified the reporting school a blanket email was sent to the applicants notifying them of the process from this point AACP convened a panel to review cases and determined sanctions Based on the sanction, the Admissions Committee re-reviewed the applicant on a case-by-case basis. Results: Initially 7% of the applicant pool yielded necessary review by the Admissions Committee Of those that were reviewed 61% was reported to AACP. In response to the overwhelming reaction from applicants contacting the school, a specific plan for communication was developed. This required a significant investment of staff and administration effort during an already busy admissions season and ACPE accreditation self-study. Implications: Applicants have the opportunity to learn from this experience about the importance of academic integrity in professional school Did not review Turn It In reports until late in the season, which resulted in many reports at a given time increasing workload in response to applicant panic. Also resulted in interviewing candidates that otherwise may not have been granted an interview Guidelines across schools may not be standardized Concerns regarding legal action in response to being identified as the reporting school Increased training for schools for what would constitute a report to AACP and examples of actions would be beneficial Lack of standardized action and participation from all schools.

Interdisciplinary Approach by Film and Pharmacy Students to Educate Students University-wide on Public Health. Kelly L. Matson, The University of Rhode IslandObjectives: The objective of this activity is to enhance pharmacy students’ knowledge and communication of public health topics through education of university peers. Student perspectives of an interdisciplinary approach of peer education delivered by campus-based conventional and web television productions were assessed. Method: Students enrolled in a pediatric elective course were randomly assigned to prepare and present educational programs based upon public health topics for young adults, newly defined by Healthy People 2020. Each program was scripted in a talk-show format, and then filmed and edited by concurrent students enrolled in a film production course. Educational segments aired University-wide on conventional and web television. Project outcomes were assessed by 10 baseline and follow-up questions using a five-point Likert scale in communication skills development, knowledge of public health as well as students’ perceptions of educating peers through an interdisciplinary approach. Results: Twenty-seven pharmacy students at baseline and 21 pharmacy students at semester's end were surveyed. A 25.4% percent change was observed in students’ perception of enhanced importance of pharmacists’ role in public health. Improved understanding of public health and communication skills was also observed with percent changes of 16% and 23.8%, respectively. Students’ level of comfort using film technologies was improved by a 14.6% percent change. Implications: An interdisciplinary approach provides pharmacy students a way to learn public health knowledge more readily, and to appreciate student differences and adopt a range of methods to promote better understanding for themselves and their peers. Additionally, pharmacy students will gain skills in community outreach and film production technologies.